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Simplified climatic map of Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa consists of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa in the north (yellow), the tropical savannas (light green) and the tropical rainforests (dark green) of Equatorial Africa, and the arid Kalahari Basin (yellow) and the "Mediterranean" south coast (olive) of Southern Africa.
The numbers shown correspond to the dates of all Iron Age artifacts associated with the Bantu expansion.
habilis probably did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as cubs and older animals. Roughly 1.8 million years ago, Homo ergaster first appeared in the fossil record in Africa.
From Homo ergaster, Homo erectus (upright man) evolved 1.5 million years ago. erectus eventually developed a more complex stone tool technology called the Acheulean. habilis descendant, was the first and most primitive hominid to ever live outside Africa, many scientists consider H.
Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia and Botswana.
According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes, gorilla and chimpanzee, but they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern, eastern and central Africa.
During the 15th century, the Bakongo farming community was united with its capital at M'banza-Kongo, under the king title, Manikongo.
The Axumite Empire spanned the southern Sahara, south Arabia and the Sahel along the western shore of the Red Sea.
It is thought that the camel was first brought to Egypt after the Persian Empire conquered Egypt in 525 BCE, although large herds did not become common enough in North Africa for camels to be the pack animal of choice for the trans-saharan trade.
Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.
The Kingdom of Kongo existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east.
Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire in the 16th century.
The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav.It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world.